Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 7-15
Enhanced FAD Production in Eremothecium ashbyi with Statistically Optimized Oxidative Stress Modulators
Manan Vipulbhai Patel, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India
Chandra Sainathan, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India
Received: Dec. 12, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 27, 2019;       Published: Jan. 31, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200501.12      View  36      Downloads  29
Abstract
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are valuable biological flavins mainly used as animal feed supplement and in pharmaceutical formulation. Eremothecium ashbyi is a natural overproducer of FAD along with riboflavin. Flavins overproduction was found to be strongly correlated with stress induction but stress response in E.ashbyi is completely unexplored. Hence, in the present study, flavins production in presence of four oxidative stress modulators (menadione, vitamin E, cAMP, H2O2) was investigated. Their levels were statistically optimized to maximize the flavins production. The regression model obtained from Central Composite Design indicated that maximum flavins production occurred when 1.09 µM menadione and 1.12 µM vitamin E were supplemented to 24-hour grown fungus. Upon supplementation, total flavins production was significantly increased by 1.34-fold and FAD production was increased by 2.18-fold over untreated control. Intracellular – reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was increased and reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was decreased indicating oxidative burst experienced by the cell. Furthermore, a concomitant increase in specific activity of glutathione reductase and FAD synthetase was observed. For the first time this study showed that among flavins, FAD was majorly increased along with FAD synthetase activity as a response to oxidative stress. These results indicated that the oxidative stress and flavins overproduction was centered on FAD regulation.
Keywords
Eremothecium ashbyi, Riboflavin, FAD, Central Composite Design (CCD), Glutathione, Oxidative Stress
To cite this article
Manan Vipulbhai Patel, Chandra Sainathan, Enhanced FAD Production in Eremothecium ashbyi with Statistically Optimized Oxidative Stress Modulators, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2020, pp. 7-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200501.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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