Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 93-96
Evaporative Coolers Air Conditioners Devices as a Source of Legionella Pneumophila in Khartoum State, Sudan and Recommended Measures of Control
Reem Mohamed Elfatih Ali Elsanousi, Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan
Received: May 8, 2020;       Accepted: May 29, 2020;       Published: Jun. 9, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200503.13      View  347      Downloads  106
This study was designed to substantiate the role of the evaporative coolers air conditioners in the proliferation of the genus Legionella. In addition to sort out, isolate and identify the genus Legionella including Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever from a new source. This type of air conditioners depends on water in their operation. They cool the air by filtering it through evaporation of water which is widely used in the Sudan. The evaporative air conditioning units considered as reservoirs of the ubiquitous bacteria which it harbored by amoeba. Legionella species can proliferate in amoeba and in biofilms that promote the growth of the bacteria even in the bad conditions. The study was done in Khartoum State including different premises from which water samples of evaporative coolers air conditioners were collected. Five hundred and fifty five water samples were collected, treated, cultured, identified and confirmed by gold standard culture technique using Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract Agar (BCYE - α medium), Glycine Vancomycin Polymxin-Cycloheximide Agar (G V P C Medium) and biochemical techniques well as Real Time PCR test. The results of Legionella species obtained from this study were 42.3% of the total collected samples with a rate of 11% for Legionella pneumophila. Recommended measures of control must be applied including this type of air conditioners to prevent Legionella out breaks.
Evaporative Coolers Air Conditioners Devices, Legionella pneumophila, Control Measures
To cite this article
Reem Mohamed Elfatih Ali Elsanousi, Evaporative Coolers Air Conditioners Devices as a Source of Legionella Pneumophila in Khartoum State, Sudan and Recommended Measures of Control, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2020, pp. 93-96. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200503.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Addiss, D. G., Davis, J. P., Laventure, M., Wand, P. J., Hutchinson, M. A. and McKinney, R. M (1989). Community - acquired Legionnaires’ disease associated with a cooling towers. Evidence for longer distance transport of Legionella pneumophila. Am. J. of Epidem, 130 (3). 557–568.
Barker, J., and Brown, M. R. W (1994). "Trojan horses of the microbial world. Protozoa and the survival of bacterial pathogens in the environment." Microbiol 140 (6). 1253-1259.
Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K. A (2003). Cowan and Steel᾽s Manual for the identification of the Medical Bacteria, 3rd "edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K.
Crespi, S. and Ferra, J (1997). Outbreak of legionellosis in a tourist complex in Lanzarote concomitant with a treatment of the water systems with mega doses of polyphosphates. Water Science and Technology, 35 (11–12). 307–309.
Dondero, T. J. Rendtorff, R. C., Mallison, G. F., Weeks, R. M., Levy, J. S., Wong, E. W. and Schaffner, W (1980). An outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease associated with a contaminated air-conditioning cooling tower. N Eng. J. Med. 302 (7). 365–370.
Edelstein, P. H., Murray, P. R., Baron, E. J., Jorgensen, J. H. and Landry, M. L (2007). Legionella. Manual of clinical microbiology 9th Ed. 835–849.
Elsanousi, R. M. A. and Elsanousi, S. M. (2017). Detection of Legionella pneumophila from evaporative coolers air conditioners in Khartoum State. Am. J. Microbiol. Res., 5 (6): 138–141.
Essick, B (1945). Pad for evaporative coolers, filled Aug. 30, 1944, patented Dec1945. United state patent office, 2, 391, 558 Pad for evaporative coolers, Bryant Essick, Los Angeles, Calif. Application Augest 30, 1944, Serial No 551, 982.
Green wood, D., Richard, C. B. and John, F (2002). Medical microbiology. Sixteen Edition, New York.
Grosserode, M. Barbaree, J. M., Breiman, R. F and Dufour, A (1993). Continuous hyper chlorination for control of Nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. a ten-year follow up of efficacy, environmental effects, and costs. In. Legionella. current status and emerging perspectives. Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology. 226–229.
Helbig, J. H., Bernander, S., CastellaniPastoris, M., Etienne, J., Gaia, V., Lauwers, S., Lindsay, D., Luck, P. C., Marques, T., Mentula, S., Peeters, M. F., Pelaz, C., Struelens. M., Uldum, S. A., Wewalka, G., and Harrison, T. G (2002). "Pan-European study on culture-proven Legionnaires' disease. distribution of Legionella pneumophila serogroups and monoclonal subgroups." Eur J ClinMicrobiol Infect Dis 21 (10). 710-716.
Jawetz, E., Melnick, J. L. and Adelberg’s, E. A (2013). Medical Microbiology. 26th edition McGraw-Hill Companies press, U. K.
Joseph, C. A., Watson, J. M., Harrison, T. G. andBartlett, C. L (1994). Nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease in England and Wales, 1980–1992. Epidemiol Infect, 112 (2). 329–345.
Junge – Mathys, E., and Mathys, W (1994). Die Legionellose – ein BeispielfürumweltbedingteInfektionen. [ Legionellosis – an example of environmentally caused infections] Intensiv, 2. 29–33.
Kim, B. R., Anderson, J. E., Mueller, S. A., Gaines, W. A., and Kendall, A. M (2002). Literature review –efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in wat er systemsWater Res 36 (18). 4433-4444.
Kirby, B. D., Snyder, K. M., Meyer and R. D. Finegold, S (1980). Legionnaires'disease. Report of sixty-five nosocomial acquired cases. Review of the literature." Medicine (Baltimore). 59 (3). 188-205.
Kunz J, Cooley L. (2016) Preventing Legionnaires’ disease: Environmental health expertise is key. J Environ Health. 79 (1): 24–6.
Lin, Y. E., Stout, J. E. and Yu, V. L (2011). Prevention of hospital-acquired legionellosis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 24 (4). 350–356.
Miquel, P. H., Haeghebaert, S. Che, D. Campese, C., Cuitard, C., Brigaud, T., Therouanne, M., Panie, S., Jarraud, S. and Dlle, f (2004). Epidemie communautire delegionellose, pas- de Calais, France, Novembr 2003- Jnvier 2004. Bull. Epidimiol. Hebd, 37. 179–181.
Murga, R., Forster, T. S., Brown, E., Pruckler, J. M., B. S. Field, B. S., and Donlan, R. M (2001). Role of bio films in the survival of Legionella pneumophilain a modelpotable-water system. Microbiology 147 (11). 3121–3126.
O’Mahony, M. S., Stanwell, R. E., Smith, H. E., Tillentt, D., Harper, J. G., Hutchison, P., Farrell, I. D., Hutchinson, D. N., Lee, J. V., Dennis, P. J., Duggal, H. V., Scully, J. A. and Denne, C (1990). The Stafford outbreak oflegionnaries’ disease. Epidimiol. infect. 104 (3). 361–380.
Potts A, Donaghy M, Marley M, et al., (2013) Cluster of Legionnaires disease cases caused by Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, Scotland, August to September. Euro Surveill 2013; 18: 20656.
Thomas, V., Bouchez, T., Nicolas, V., Robert, S., Loret J. F., and Levi, Y (2004). Amoebae in domestic water systems. resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97 (5). 950–963.
Watson, J. M., Mitchell, E., Gabbay, J., Maguire, H., Boyle, M., Bruce, J., Tomlinson, M., Lee, J., Harrison, T. G., Uttley, A., O'Mahony, M. and Cunningham, D (1994). Piccadilly Circus Legionnaires’ disease outbreak J. Pub. Hlth Med., 16 (3). 341–347.
Yee, R. B. and Wadowsky, R. M (1982). Multiplication of Legionella pneumophilain unsterilized tap water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 43 (6). 1330–1334.
Browse journals by subject