Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Page: 165-183
Interactions of Organic Acids with Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Strains from Swine Mandibular Lymph Node Tissue, Commercial Pork Sausage Meat and Feces
Ross Carlton Beier, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Kathleen Andrews, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Toni Lee Poole, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Roger Bruce Harvey, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Tawni Lyn Crippen, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Robin Carl Anderson, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
David James Nisbet, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas, United States of America
Received: Oct. 30, 2020;       Accepted: Nov. 11, 2020;       Published: Nov. 19, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200504.12      View  24      Downloads  21
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium affecting human health, and a major cause of skin infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide health concern, occurs in food animals, is consistently found in swine, and improved strategies are needed to ensure the removal of MRSA from food products. A total of 164 S. aureus strains were isolated from swine mandibular lymph node tissue, commercial pork sausage meat, and feces. These strains were tested for methicillin-resistance, and 7 of the strains isolated from the mandibular lymph node tissue and pork sausage meat were resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin, and tested positive for staph specific rRNA and for the mecA gene and are therefore, MRSA strains. An intracellular MRSA contamination of 8.2% within swine lymph node tissue and 5.8% MRSA contamination in pork sausage meat was demonstrated. Lymph node tissue may be utilized in producing pork sausage; therefore, the prevalence of MRSA in final pork products may not only be caused by surface contamination, but by internal tissue infection. The strains were tested for susceptibility to six organic acids (OAs) citric, L-lactic, butyric, acetic, propionic, and formic acid. The pH was determined at each of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) observed for the S. aureus strains. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was used to calculate the ratio of the undissociated to dissociated OA concentrations, and the molar concentrations of each were calculated from the total OA present and the ratio. Inhibition of S. aureus did not correlate with pH or the undissociated OA concentrations, but it did correlate with the dissociated OA concentrations. A dissociated OA concentration of 21 mM was successful for inhibiting the S. aureus strains tested. Studies must be conducted in vivo to confirm this concentration value. Acetic, butyric, formic, and propionic acid were the most effective OAs tested against S. aureus.
Keywords
Acetic Acid, Citric Acid, Formic Acid, L-Lactic Acid, Molar Minimum inhibitory Concentrations (MICMs), Organic Acids, Propionic Acid, Staphylococcus aureus, Susceptibility, Swine
To cite this article
Ross Carlton Beier, Kathleen Andrews, Toni Lee Poole, Roger Bruce Harvey, Tawni Lyn Crippen, Robin Carl Anderson, David James Nisbet, Interactions of Organic Acids with Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Strains from Swine Mandibular Lymph Node Tissue, Commercial Pork Sausage Meat and Feces, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 165-183. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20200504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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